Baking Wiki

Looking for quick help? You've come to the right place. Use the glossary in the baking wiki to find the explanation of the technical term.

Baking Wiki

Not only do you enjoy baking and creating new dessert variations, but would you like to learn more about all the technical terms and ingredients used in the course? Christian is happy to share his expertise with you. Find out about individual baking ingredients and ingredients as well as the numerous pâtisserie technical terms in our glossary. You will find details about baking behaviour as well as processing tips for confectioners, professional pâtissiers and hobby bakers. Quench your thirst for knowledge, we hope you enjoy Christian Hümb's Meisterklasse "The Art of Pâtisserie!"

Looking for quick help? You've come to the right place. Use the search or the dictionary to find the explanation of the term.













O, P, Q




U, V, W

X, Y, Z



Thicken a thin sauce, soup or similar (e.g. by adding flour).


Burning down

also roast. Stir a dough (choux pastry) over medium heat until the mixture forms a lump, separates from the side of the pot and the bottom of the pot is covered with a white film.


Using a brush, brush the pastries with a liquid (e.g. egg yolk whisked with a little milk) before placing in the oven and/or shortly before the end of baking.


Process in cooking in which a cold (or room-warm) liquid is added after something has been sautéed or heated.


Chilling almost fermented dough pieces.



The term "Abtrieb" (also: butter abrasion, abrasion mass) refers to the mass that is produced from butter, icing sugar and egg yolks mixed with a mixer until fluffy.

Agalita (MUGARITZ Agalita - magnesium silicate hydrate)

Agalita - magnesium silicate hydrate, is a food-safe edible clay used for the preparation of dishes that resemble structures of stone, crystal or glass.


Is a thickening agent obtained mainly from red algae. Mainly from Asia, agar agar is a vegan alternative to the well-known gelatine. The powder is neutral in taste and can be used to thicken creams, desserts, but also soups and the like. In the EU, it is identified by the food additive number E 406.
Its gelling power is many times higher than that of gelatine. Agar-agar is available in various forms: sticks, square pieces, leaves, grains, flakes and powder.

All-in procedure

All the ingredients are mixed together at the same time to form a dough.

Amarena cherries

are dark red sour cherries that have been soaked in a thick viscous syrup of sugar, almond oil and vanilla until they have taken on the typical almond aroma.


Italian almond liqueur


s. Staghorn salt


If you want to mix two masses that are different in consistency or temperature with the best result, you equalise them. One mass is mixed with only a small part of the second mass and thus "equalised" before the second mass is completely mixed in.


is available as seeds or in powder form. It can be used in small quantities in the preparation of gingerbread dough.

Cake piercing

To check whether the cake is done, always pierce with a wooden stick after two thirds of the baking time at the earliest. Pierce the centre of the cake or tart vertically with the wooden stick. The cake is cooked when no dough or mass sticks to the stick or when a core temperature of more than 70 °C is reached, check with a core temperature gauge if necessary.


Solidification of couverture and chocolate.


Spreading hot, strained apricot jam on a cake or tart.


Shape the dough into rolls or pastries


Heat the pastry briefly to make it crisp again if it is no longer fresh.


Mix the ingredients with a whisk so that air gets in and the volume increases.

Bake out

Bake something until it is cooked or ready.

Churning out

Butter the inside walls of a mould or small ramekin to make it easier to remove the food from the mould. Leave inverted or covered with the mould for a few minutes before turning out.


Line a cake tin or springform pan with baking paper or the rolled-out shortcrust pastry.

Lay out

Line the inside of a mould with pastry or other food ingredients - either for decoration or to firm up the contents so that they can be turned out later. Or: Brush the mould with a little oil and line it with cling film (for sulzen, terrines or parfaits).

Bike out

Shape the rolled out dough with a pastry wheel.

Roll out

Roll the dough evenly with a rolling pin or rolling pin or roll out to the desired thickness (if necessary, roll out between two sheets of baking parchment).

Knock out

Gradually beat sugar or thick, hot sugar water into the stiffly beaten egg whites until the snow is thick, fluffy and glossy.

Cut out

Cut out shapes and figures from rolled out (shortbread) dough using cookie cutters.

Cookie cutter

First and foremost, they are needed for cutting out biscuits and small baked goods. They are generally made of tinplate and are available in smooth or serrated shapes in a wide range of sizes. Small cutters can also be used to cut out pretty decorations, for example from marzipan, and used to decorate cakes and tarts.

Strike out

Brush moulds or cookware on the inside surfaces with butter or oil that is not too cold to make it easier to separate the contents from the mould later.


Sprinkle moulds evenly and densely with flour, sugar, breadcrumbs, chopped almonds or other cooking ingredients. Spread with butter beforehand.



Babka or Bobka, also known as Baba is the name of a sweet yeast cake originating from Central/Eastern Europe.


Baking aroma

are available in a wide variety of flavours such as vanilla, lemon, orange or bitter almond. Since the flavours are very intense, they are usually only used drop by drop.


Baking tray supports

Nowadays, there are already very good baking tray supports that replace the need for greasing and flouring. Silicone baking mats are available in well-stocked specialist shops. Thanks to their high resistance to heat and cold, they are very versatile. After use, the mats should be washed and dried thoroughly (most baking mats are dishwasher safe). Never cut with a knife on a baking mat.

Baking tin

Baking tins come in a wide variety of shapes and materials: coated tins, tinplate tins, black plate tins, aluminium tins, ceramic tins. The variety of moulds: The classics are Gugelhupf, Kranzkuchen, box, king cake and springform moulds. The latter are offered with exchangeable bases. For example, an insertable base for a wreath cake.

Baking mats Silpat

Silpat is a non-stick baking mat that is suitable for baking, freezing and as a work surface for sugar work or rolling out dough.

Baking paper

is used to line baking tins and trays so that the dough does not stick. To prevent the baking paper from slipping when filling or spreading the dough, it is a good idea to dab the mould or tray with butter before placing the paper.

Pastry brush

It is best to have different types of brushes. Brushes with long, soft natural bristles are ideal. Wide brushes are used to grease cake tins and baking trays. Particularly soft brushes are used to brush doughs or pastries with egg, milk, water, jam, glazes or to remove excess flour or icing sugar.

Baking powder

is a leavening agent. It is a mixture of sodium bicarbonate, salt, acids and starch. After the commercially available and chemically produced baking powder, there is also organic baking powder that contains tartar instead of a chemical acidifier. Carbonic acid develops in the dough, which makes the dough rise quickly. It is best to mix the baking powder with flour and only then mix it into the rest of the mixture. Dry and store in a well-sealed container.

Baking parchment

Parchment-like, coated paper for lining baking trays, which eliminates the need to grease the baking tray. Baking parchment paper can be used more often if necessary and depending on use.

Meringue or egg white masses

Should be processed with a pinch of corn starch or starch powder, as this makes the mass firmer . Meringue masses can be coloured with instant coffee or food colouring. Dry the meringue at a rather low temperature and let it dry again in a switched-off, slightly open oven.

Voucher cherries

are cherries candied with sugar, usually coloured.


Sprinkle a piece of pastry through a fine sieve with cocoa powder, icing sugar or similar.

Bishop (flat stirrer)

The bishop or flat beater is made of stainless steel or non-stick coated aluminium. It is best suited for mixing and stirring medium to heavy doughs such as shortcrust pastry or sponge. It can also be used for whipping or foaming masses quickly.

Bitter almond flavouring

is an essential oil of bitter almond, peach or apricot kernels. It is suitable for cakes, stollen, marzipan and pastries. As it is very flavour-intensive, it should only be used sparingly.


Blanching (from the French blanchir 'to whiten'), also scalding, scalding, scouring, is the term for a brief thermal treatment of food in boiling water or in hot steam. Blanching belongs to the group of preparation processes.

Blind baking

Refers to a baking technique for making a dough base, usually shortcrust pastry, which is subsequently filled. The dough should remain as flat as possible and not rise. To do this, the dough base is lined or weighted down with pulses, nuts or, as described in the course, chopped almonds.


e.g. shortcrust pastry, if the butter becomes too warm due to kneading or working too long, the fat and water separate, the water (of the butter ) clumps together with the flour, making the dough crumbly and no longer binding. Prepare a new dough, preferably roughly grate the butter from the fridge and quickly knead all the ingredients with a food processor or hand mixer, shape into a flat brick and leave to rest for a while.


French yeast pastry or pastry (yeast pastry) with a high butter content.




(mostly small and sweet) filled yeast pastry


and all other fats that are stirred until creamy should always be at room temperature when processed.


Chantilly (Cream)

Crème Chantilly is a component of many desserts and consists of sweetened whipped cream. It is not to be confused with Sauce Chantilly (German name: Sahnesauce), which is a derivative of mayonnaise. It can be flavoured with other ingredients, for example vanilla, grated citrus peel or orange blossom water.

Cocktail cherries

are cherries preserved in coloured sugar syrup and flavoured with bitter almond oil.


are corn flakes made with sugar and malt.

Crème fraîche / Crème double

Crème fraîche, (French for "fresh cream"), also known as kitchen cream or kitchen cream, is a sour cream product originally developed in France. In Germany, it must have a minimum fat content of 30 percent and an addition of up to 15 percent sucrose is permitted.

Crème double ("double cream"), is a particularly rich, sweet-creamy, boil-proof and spoon-proof cream product with a fat content of 40 to 55 %. Crème double is therefore a cream with an increased fat content, it is used to refine soups, sauces or desserts and for baking.

Stir until creamy

Stir ingredients until they have a soft, smooth and creamy consistency.



are best suited for baking in dried form. Fresh dates contain too much liquid. Their shelf life is therefore very limited.

Demerara sugar

raw cane sugar mixed with molasses


can be kept in the refrigerator for two days if they are covered with an airtight layer of oil. Yolk or egg can be diluted with a few drops of oil, water, milk or cream to coat pastries. If you also mix sugar into the glaze, the pastry will have more shine. For savoury pastries, salt can also be added to the icing.


is the shaping of masses or creams with a piping bag (piping bag).

Piping bag / piping bag

Bag-shaped kitchen utensil, usually made of boil-proof material (impregnated linen or plastic), which is used with the help of various spouts to decorate or dress cakes, desserts or cold platters, as well as to make piped pastries or to fill pastries, egg halves or vegetables.



Eggs should be used as fresh as possible. The weight of an egg is approx. 50 g for a whole egg without shell, 20 g for a yolk and 30 g for an egg white. Only shortcrust pastry or fruit confections do not require the addition of eggs. Fresh eggs are only used for masses that are subsequently heated or baked. Only pasteurised egg products should be used for creams.

Egg yolk


Egg white



Make a sauce or soup thicker (e.g. by boiling or using flour).


Grease a baking tin evenly with soft or liquid butter.


Boil a liquid on low heat until the volume has reduced significantly and the liquid is more viscous.

Flouring / flouring

Mix the flour gradually, preferably with a wooden spoon or rubber spatula, carefully into a mixture (e.g. yolk mixture with beaten egg whites).

Mounting / Assembling

For a particularly creamy consistency, butter can be incorporated. For this, cold pieces of butter are gradually incorporated into the warm mass while whipping to bind it.

Shooting in

Place the shaped biscuits in the oven

Slide-in rails

The height of the pastry determines the rack. The centre of the pastry should be in the middle of the oven, i.e. the flatter the pastry, the higher it is inserted.

Egg whites

Always carefully separate the egg whites from the yolks, as they cannot be beaten with yolk residues. It is easier to beat with lemon juice, salt or sugar. Adding wheat or corn starch to the egg white mass increases its firmness. Always whip egg whites just before using them - they quickly collapse again.


Ice cream spread for brushing yeast pastries consists of one egg yolk (approx. 20 grams) and 10 grams of milk (or in a ratio of 2 to 1). Mix well and brush onto the unbaked dough with a pastry brush. The more egg yolk there is in the egg spread, the more intense the "colour" will be later when baking.


Emulsification is the production of an emulsion, i.e. a fine mixture of two actually immiscible liquids to form a mass without visible separation. This is known, for example, from the production of mayonnaise, but milk is also an emulsion.


Grease glass masses

are available in different flavours and colours. They do not need to be tempered, but also do not have the fine taste and delicate melting of couverture. They are available in specialised shops. The icing becomes particularly fine when half of it is mixed with dipping mass. When melting chocolate, couverture and glazes, make sure that they are not heated too much.


Igniting the evaporating alcohol of a food that has been doused with a spirit. This causes the food to take on the aromatic substances of the spirit used, which intensifies the taste of the food (for example, in crêpes suzette).


A white, melt-in-the-mouth sugar mass. The basis for many types of confectionery or glazes. Fondant can be shaped, melted, coloured and flavoured. Fondant is melted in a water bath while stirring. For a glaze, it is thinned with melted butter and hot water, fruit juice or liqueur until it has a spreadable consistency.

Fruit or aroma powder

is a powder made from previously dried fruits or peels.

Fruit syrup

Is made by heating and boiling down various fruit juices. It is thick and suitable for flavouring and seasoning creams, masses and doughs.


To add a filling to a piece of pastry by pouring, pouring, spraying, laying, etc. into it.


Ganache (cream)

a melting, delicate cream made from fresh cream and chocolate (French: ganache). The cream is heated, the chocolate melted in it and left to cool overnight. The cold mixture is then whipped with an electric mixer for 10-15 minutes to a thick, foamy cream. Very important: Do not use ultra-high temperature, long-life cream.

Let go

Leave the yeast dough to rest covered at a temperature of about 30°C in a draught-free place so that it rises and visibly increases in volume.

Gelatine (leaf gelatine)

Gelatine is the name for jelly made from industrially produced gelatine cooked from animal collagen-rich raw materials. The basic recipe is made from broth or water, vinegar and gelatine in sheet or powder form and is used, for example, to bind parfaits, not to be confused with galantine.

Always soak gelatine in cold water for approx. 5 minutes, do not soak too long.
Gelatine can be stirred into warm masses immediately, allow to cool well and only process further when the base mass begins to set, otherwise the gelatine could settle on the bottom!
Dishes containing gelatine must always be well seasoned and chilled, if necessary place in the freezer for a short time or for approx. 1 hour.
If cold masses are mixed with gelatine, it is essential to stir while stirring in the gelatine, or to mix part of the basic mass with the liquid gelatine and stir into the basic mass. Caution. Do not mix foods with gelatine using a hand blender or tower blender, as this will reduce the gelling capacity!
With desserts, be aware that some fruits cause the gelatine not to set due to acidity or enzymes (pineapple, kiwi, papaya, figs, strawberries, rhubarb). In this case, the fruit would have to be cooked in sugar water (firmer fruit) or briefly soaked in lukewarm sugar water.


Turn a liquid or semi-liquid dish into a semi-solid mass (into jelly) by using gelatine or agar agar.


Coat or pour glaze evenly over a piece of pastry.


The basic ingredients are: Milk, cream, sugar syrup, melted butter, jams, fruit juice mixtures with which the pastries are decorated or coated. For protein glazes, I use the dry protein "Eibumin", which is available in specialised shops, because of a possible risk of salmonella.

Stir smooth

Mix the ingredients together until a homogeneous mass without lumps is formed.

Glucose syrup

Viscous sugar syrup made from water, dextrose and dextrins, used in upscale pâtisserie (available in pharmacies, from confectioners or in specialised gastronomy shops) The transparent-looking mass is very viscous, sticky and is used for fondant, marzipan and confectionery. If necessary, it can also be replaced with refining sugar - but this causes crystallisation, which is not desirable for all sweets.

Gluten-free flour alternatives

We show you the best alternatives to conventional flour and how to use the different types of flour for baking and cooking.




The pulp is suitable for consumption as well as for making juices and syrups. The juice of the pale red and juicy skin is used for this. Pomegranate syrup is available in grocery stores.


Bundt cake

Rubber scraper / dough scraper

The rubber dough scraper is available in different sizes and is particularly suitable for cleaning out bowls and pots. It is also suitable for spreading doughs and masses and for folding in flour, nuts, snow or cream.


Hail sugar

s. Sugar

Hand mixer

Classic appliance with two whisks for beating egg whites (snow), curd and semi-liquid masses and a pair of dough hooks for kneading firmer doughs.

Hand mixer

A hand mixer, hand blender or kitchen mixer is a hand-held kitchen appliance for mixing doughy or liquid foods or whipping cream. It usually has two beaters, whisks or dough hooks that rotate against each other.

Hazelnuts peel

Dry roast the hazelnuts, rub off the shells in a coarse cloth.

Staghorn salt

Used to be obtained from burnt deer antlers. Today it is produced by chemical processes. Only when heated above 60 °C does it develop gases (ammonia and carbon dioxide) that loosen the dough. Use approx. 5 to 8 g per 500 g flour. Store all dough-loosening agents in a dry and well-sealed place.



To coat a food with a sugar solution and thereby preserve it.

Candied fruit

They stick less if you roll them in flour or cut them with a damp knife.


Are prepared from Viennese paste spread on rectangular baking trays. Starting point for a sponge cake roulade or slice


Heat the sugar until it is liquid and turns a golden yellow colour.


As a close relative of ginger, cardamom, also called "the queen of spices" in its country of origin India, often appears as its neighbour in the pan. The small oval pods have a distinctive flavour of their own and a strong, gingerbread-like aroma. Although cardamom has long been indispensable in sweet cuisine, it is also excellent for flavouring rice, but also lends additional refinement to minced meat, roasts and grilled meats, as well as - in subtle doses - fish dishes. Like most spices, cardamom quickly loses its aroma once it has been ground. Spice professionals therefore always peel only the amount of seeds they need from the capsules and crush them in a mortar or grind them in an old coffee grinder.

Loaf tin

Loaf pans are rectangular and about the same width as height. Typical uses are sponge cakes, breads, etc.


Shape (cones)

Kitchen Aid

KitchenAid is an American manufacturer of electric kitchen machines. The manufacturer's best-known product is the universal food processor, which is most often referred to colloquially by the company.

Cooking spoon

Wooden wooden spoons can be used for preparing doughs and creams. If fruits are being processed, plastic cooking spoons are recommended as they are not affected by the fruit acid. So-called mixing spoons with a hole in the blade are recommended for mixing in flour or snow more easily.


Small dried Greek grapes


airy pastry baked out in fat


Mix peeled almonds, hazelnuts, walnuts or pumpkin seeds roughly chopped with caramelised sugar in a ratio of 30:70 or 50:50 (nuts/sugar) and leave to cool on an oiled baking tray. Coarsely or finely chop the hard sugar and nut mixture or chop in a kitchen cutter.

Cake rack

Kitchen utensil for professional cooling of pastries, cakes and pies. The cake rack (also known as cake wire, lattice) allows the air to act on the baked goods from all sides, thus preventing the baked goods from becoming moist.

Food processor

Universal appliance that makes many tasks much easier. For quick mixing, pureeing, stirring, kneading and beating egg whites (snow) etc.

Kitchen grater

Preferably made of stainless steel, in various designs for grating orange and lemon peel or for grating chocolate.

Kitchen scales

A good kitchen scale is not only able to give accurate readings in grams, but also quantities of approx. 2-3 kilos.
Do not make the mistake of measuring flour, sugar and other ingredients with a measuring cup. This is mainly intended for liquids; with all other ingredients, the different weights will result in incorrect readings.

Short timer

For checking and adhering to the specified baking time. In addition to the classic devices, clocks with digital displays are also available.


A high-quality chocolate for pâtisserie with a high cocoa butter content. It melts without lumps and is therefore particularly suitable for glazes or sprayed decorations. Couverture is temperature-sensitive; overheated couverture becomes dull as it solidifies and forms grey streaks. The trade offers mainly semi-sweet, milk and white couverture. Couverture glazes can splinter when cut. Therefore, coated biscuits should be cut into pieces with a heated knife before the couverture has completely set.



If gingerbread or biscuits have become hard, I have a simple method to get them soft again: I line the bottom of a larger container (which can be closed tightly) with a damp napkin. On this I place the pastries spread on a flat dish. The addition of an apple can also be very helpful at times. Leftover gingerbread can be ground into crumbs. This can be used to make delicious desserts such as casseroles or ice cream parfaits.

Gingerbread spice

can be bought ready-made in grocery stores. It is a spice mixture of cinnamon, clove powder, nutmeg, allspice, fennel, aniseed, star anise, cardamom, ginger, coriander and pepper.



Mix the dough mixture with a pastry spatula and smooth until the mixture flows from the spoon like a ribbon.

Almond semolina

Almond semolina consists of peeled and ground almonds. It is suitable for baking cakes, tarts and pastries. In some recipes it can replace all or part of the flour.

Peel almonds

Boil the almonds briefly in boiling water, strain, wrap in a cloth and rub the almonds vigorously against each other, peel or remove the shells.




Sweet chestnut


consists of shelled almonds (sometimes nuts) and sugar. It works best on a smooth work surface. Use wheat starch or finely sifted icing sugar to roll out the dough.

Marzipan paste

consists of two-thirds shelled, finely grated almonds and one-third granulated sugar. The mixture is flavoured with a few drops of rose water and a trace of bitter almond oil. For rolling out or modelling figures, marzipan paste is mixed with up to 50% icing sugar.


is an Italian cream cheese of the double cream type


Common measurements are:

g = gram
ml = mililitre
Msp = knife tip
EL = level tablespoon
TL = level teaspoon
Pinch = The amount that can be caught between two fingertips

Flour (type)

The flour type indicates the amount of minerals in the flour in milligrams that remain when 100 g of flour is burnt. A type 550 flour contains on average 550 mg of minerals (ash). The higher the type number, the higher the mineral content.

Type 405: is a common household flour with good baking properties (cake flour, pastry, for binding sauces; for croissants, baguettes, ciabattas, white breads).

Type 550: stronger taste (for yeast pastries, rolls, white breads)


Desserts and sweets in general.


Of course, knives are also needed in the dessert kitchen. The basic equipment should include one knife with a serrated edge and one with a smooth edge for slicing cakes and tarts. As an extension, it is advisable to purchase a knife with a long blade for cutting through cakes horizontally.


Microplane is a registered trademark of Grace Manufacturing Inc, a company that manufactures photo-etched steel tools for grating and grinding.

Beat with sugar

Beat the sifted icing sugar into very stiff egg whites by beating vigorously with the egg whisk.


goes rancid easily and should therefore always be kept frozen. Depending on the colour, a distinction is made between grey, blue and white poppies.


is a kitchen appliance that is suitable for both chopping and grinding.


Shortcrust pastry, also known as mürbteig or kneaded dough, is a firm dough that is usually prepared without a loosening agent. Shortcrust here means "soft, tender" - it is the opposite of crunchy. Shortcrust pastry is not elastic and does not contract after rolling out. It contains flour and/or starch and fat and - depending on whether it is a sweet dish or a savoury dish - sugar or salt and occasionally whole egg, oil seeds or spices.


Baking soda

(long form sodium hydrogen carbonate NaHCO₃) is a chemical leavening agent used in baking. It is also known as cooking soda or baking soda.


There are two different types of nougat that are not related to each other:
Dark nougat, made from nuts and cocoa, among other things
White nougat, made from egg whites and honey, among other things

Nut butter

Nut butter gets its name from the nutty taste of the butter when heated, when the protein it contains browns. Nuts are not used in this process. Heat the butter in a small saucepan over medium heat, stirring constantly with a whisk. This will cause the water to evaporate (as shown by the bubbles that rise) and the stirring will prevent the egg whites from burning on the bottom of the pan. When most of the water has evaporated, the liquid butter will slowly become clear and it won't be long before it turns slightly brown. The small crumbs at the bottom now take on a nice hazelnut-brown colour. Then remove the pot from the cooker and decant the liquid butter so that it does not burn from the residual heat and develop a bitter taste.



are used as a base for Elisen gingerbread as well as for various macaroon masses. They are available in different sizes and shapes (e.g. rectangular or round). I mainly use round wafers with a diameter of 4 mm. They are made from starch and flour and are also available as a wholemeal product.

Candied orange peel and lemon peel

(Dried peel for desserts) is the peel of oranges and lemons boiled down in sugar and is very popular for gingerbread and as a filling, chopped small also for praline fillings and confectionery.


Pacojet / Paco Cup

The Pacojet is a powerful professional kitchen appliance that enables the preparation of exquisite, high-quality dishes quickly and easily. Above all, the Pacojet saves time and effort and makes optimum use of food. The Pacojet ensures portion-precise preparation of frozen food to an ultra-fine consistency. ... To use the finished product, simply clamp the container with the frozen contents in the Pacojet, select the number of portions and press the start button.

Pallet (kitchen utensil)

A palette is a kitchen utensil consisting of a handle and a long and flat, uniformly wide, flexible steel blade with a rounded tip. It is the kitchen analogue of a spatula in form and function. Other names are confectioner's knife and spreading palette. In confectionery and bakery, the palette is used to smooth and spread creams, icings, fillings, whipped cream and the like when making cakes, pies and desserts. It is also suitable for lifting or turning biscuits, biscuits, cake pieces, etc.


Press the mass (e.g. fruit) through a fine sieve to filter out seeds and any pieces.

Pignoli or pine nuts

are white elongated seeds of a pine species that belongs to the pine family. They have an almond-like taste and are used for decorating and garnishing. They get a more intense flavour by additional roasting.


is a white, lye-tasting salt that must be dissolved in liquid before it is mixed into the dough. It is used to loosen honey doughs. Approximately 8 to 10 g of potash are used per 500 g of flour.


The praline or praliné is a bite-sized product made of chocolate with flavour-defining fillings (ganache or nougat, nuts, pistachios, liqueur, marzipan or similar) or fruit. Pralines are considered the crowning glory of the art of chocolatiering due to their elaborate production.

Blender and strainer

Primarily used for quickly chopping pieces of fruit or whipping cream sauces.


Cream / sour cream

Cream / cream or sweet cream / sour cream is milk concentrated by centrifugation with at least 10 % fat content. See also creme fraiche / creme double.

Let rest

Leave shortcrust pastry, puff pastry, pancake pastry, etc. in a cool place (it is easier to process), or leave roasted meat or large roasts to rest before cutting (the juices can spread well and do not escape when cutting).

Red Velvet (Cake)

The name "Red Velvet" comes from the American "Red Velvet Cake".


Strong boiling down of liquids to reduce the water content and thus intensify the taste.



Guide values for a normal, level tablespoon or teaspoon:

Food EL / TL:

  • Flour 10g / 3g
  • Wheat starch flour 9g / 3g
  • Sugar 15g / 5g
  • Cocoa powder 6g / 2g
  • Icing sugar 10g / 3g
  • Milk 15g / 5g
  • Honey 20g / 6g

Rolling pin

Primarily used to roll out dough or masses, but also suitable for crushing solid ingredients such as spices or nuts. The rolling pin is also called a dough roller and a dough, corrugated or rolling pin.


Dried grapes.

Let rest

Store the finished dough either in a warm (yeast dough) or cool (shortcrust) place so that it reaches its optimum consistency and can be processed further.



Saffron is extracted from the stigmas of a plant related to the crocus and is considered the most expensive spice in the world. Saffron tastes aromatically bitter and a little hot. It is used very sparingly in rice dishes, fish soups and sauces. Saffron is best boiled in water, soup or wine for a short time before it is added to sauces or cream soups. The ancient Romans liked to sprinkle the spice, whose acquaintance they owed to the Persians, over their wedding beds. The posh spice, which is made from a species of crocus (Crocus sativus) that blooms purple in autumn (it is considered the most expensive in the world), is now even more popular in Asia. Only the dried stigmas of the fruit leaves are used, which is why 80,000 to 150,000 blossoms from a cultivated area of about 1,000 square metres are needed to produce 1 kg of saffron. Saffron contains highly colouring carotenoids such as crocin and can be both highly aromatic and, if overdosed (more than 10 g), lethal. Saffron quickly loses its aromatic properties when exposed to light, so it should always be kept in the dark and, incidentally, not cooked for too long. (It is best to soak the stamens in water for a few minutes and only add them to dishes at the end of cooking). Freshly ground saffron, however, enhances its colouring effect.

Hazelnut shelling

Dry roast the hazelnuts, rub off the shells in a coarse cloth.

Peeling almonds

Boil the almonds briefly in boiling water, strain, wrap in a cloth and rub the almonds vigorously against each other, peel or remove the shells.

Stir until frothy

Whisk ingredients to get air in and increase volume.


round a piece of dough by making circular movements with the palm of the hand.


Preferably made of stainless steel and in different sizes. Particularly suitable for folding in beaten egg whites, whipped cream or creams, just as good for gently mixing delicate masses.


The contraction of the dough when it has not had sufficient rest.


is similar to the dunk mass, but has a higher sugar and lower cocoa content. In addition, additives such as flavourings, nougat, cream, nuts, fruits, etc. are usually added. It is offered as cooking chocolate and is suitable for coating and dipping. Chocolate can be melted over a water bath or briefly in the microwave. I always add a little coconut fat or butter to the melted chocolate for better processing. Chocolate should ideally be stored at 18 to 20 °C and kept sealed.


You need them in different sizes. For preparing dough, beating snow or whipping cream, it is best to use bowls made of sturdy plastic with a rubber ring on the bottom to ensure stability and prevent slipping. Metal bowls conduct heat well. They are particularly suitable for work steps that take place over a hot water bath - e.g. for whipping warm egg masses or melting chocolate.

Self Rising Flour - Self raising Flour

Self Rising Flour is mainly used for baking in the USA, Australia and England. It already contains leavening agents such as baking soda and/or baking powder.


Should also be purchased in various sizes. It would be advantageous if the sieves were also made of different materials. Sifters are mainly used for loosening flour or for sifting bakery products with icing sugar, cocoa, etc. If lemon juice is involved, the sieve should be made of plastic; if hot liquids are sieved, metal sieves should be used.

Springform pan

Springform pans are usually round, but sometimes also square or differently shaped (e.g. heart-shaped), mostly flat baking pans made of two parts: A sheet metal, adjustable ring forms the side wall, into which a replaceable base is clamped. With a flat base, it is mainly used for baking cakes and cake bases, with a base with a central chimney (so-called "tube base") it replaces a wreath mould for sponge cakes. Unlike other baking moulds, the finished cake does not have to be turned out, but the mould pops open by opening the clamping lever of the outer ring, and the wall and base separate from each other.

Piping bag / piping bag

can be easily made from paper pins. The best way to make them is to fold baking paper diagonally.

Chopstick test

Is used to determine whether a sponge or sponge mixture is baked. To do this, insert a wooden stick (e.g. a toothpick) into the thickest part of the dough. If no dough remains on the stick when you pull it out, the dough is baked.

Starch flour

is obtained from wheat, maize, rice or potatoes, among other things.

Starch syrup

Auxiliary available in specialist shops which, among other things, prevents the sugar from browning too quickly during caramelisation.

icing sugar

Icing sugar

Beat stiff

Whisk the ingredients (usually egg whites) vigorously until the beaten egg whites are so firm that even if you turn the bowl upside down, they will not come out of the bowl but remain in it.

Star anise

The dried seed pod from China owes its name to its star shape. It is a component of the five-spice powder, but can also be cooked with meat, vegetables and rice and removed before serving.


Streusel is a garnish or decoration for cakes. Usually a crumbly dough is made from butter, sugar and flour, which can be refined with other ingredients (e.g. spices, oat flakes or nuts). It must not be kneaded too long so that the crumble does not become too hard later.


Yeast pastry, brioche plait

Sweet snow

Sweet snow or decor sugar is a form of icing sugar. It is additionally treated with starch and fat and therefore keeps well even on warm baked goods. The treatment prevents the surface from becoming moist.



Cooling of masses (e.g. couverture) by spreading several times and reassembling with a spatula on a marble slab.


In French cuisine, tarte refers to a cake made from a special type of shortcrust pastry, which is usually made completely without the addition of salt or sugar, i.e. neutral in taste. It can have both savoury and sweet toppings. It is baked in special flat round baking tins with fluted edges, sometimes also in a springform pan.

Dough card

Preferably made of plastic (food-safe), with a smooth or serrated edge. The smooth version is particularly suitable for spreading masses and doughs in cake tins, the serrated version is mainly used for decorating.

Dough scraper

See rubber scraper


Gradual heating of couverture over a warm water bath with the aim of obtaining a beautiful gloss and crisp break. Tempering takes place in three steps: First, the couverture is heated to a maximum temperature (between 40° to 50°C). Then it is heated to a lower temperature range (26° to 28°C) while stirring and adding more couverture if necessary, and then to the processing temperature of 29° to 33°C.


The Thermomix is a multifunctional kitchen machine from the Wuppertal-based Vorwerk Group that can chop and mix food as well as heat, cook and sauté it.



Cake ring

The cake ring is a tool used by the confectioner or pastry chef to make round cakes.


Working fat into the basic dough in layers (e.g. butter into yeast dough to obtain puff pastry). These are referred to as single and double tours. In a single tour, the finished dough sheet is folded three times, in a double tour it is folded four times.

TpT almond flour+powdered sugar (Tant pour Tant)

Tant pour Tant (French: half and half) is a mixture consisting of equal parts of icing sugar and almond powder (traditionally used to make macarons).

Watering holes

Sprinkle a cake base generously with a liquid (e.g. juice, spirits or syrup) so that the base soaks up and stays nice and moist.

Spout (hole spout / star spout)

Approx. 5 - 6 cm long bag-shaped special device made of metal or plastic, which is used in conjunction with the piping bag for decorating or filling. There is a large selection and many different nozzles for decorating in different thicknesses and diameters.


or couverture is a high-quality semi-finished product which, like chocolate, is used to coat confectionery and other baked goods. A special processing method is necessary so that this chocolate quickly solidifies or retains its gloss. The expert speaks of so-called tempering. In this process, dipping mass is heated to a certain temperature. You can avoid this process by adding coconut fat or butter when melting the couverture (approx. 50 to 100 g coconut fat per 1 kg couverture) or by buying a ready-made fat glaze mass. The following flavours of couverture are available in specialised shops: plain, milk, white, strawberry, lime, caramel, coffee and honey couverture.


small round spot


Beat over steam

Bring water to the boil in a higher pot, put a snow kettle or a suitable bowl on top. The snow kettle or bowl must not be immersed in the water. Steam must be able to develop between the water and the vessel.



Cover a pastry evenly with a topping (usually a glaze).

Conversion table for liquids:

  • 100ml = 0.1 l
  • 125ml = 1/8 l
  • 250ml = 1/4 l
  • 500ml = 1/2 l
  • 1000ml = 1 l
  • 1ml = 1g


Carefully but quickly mix beaten masses (beaten egg whites, whipped cream) with the base mass without stirring.


Mix a little into a mixture without stirring (see Folding in).


Vanilla sugar

Store a mixture of finely grated real vanilla pod (black colour or black dots visible) or slit vanilla pod in a screw-top glass with white granulated sugar. If necessary, add a tea ball filled with raw rice to remove the moisture and prevent the sugar from hardening. Today, it is usually made from artificial or synthetically produced vanillin. For seasoning and flavouring pastries and desserts, creams and ice cream.


Thoroughly mix the ingredients with a whisk or fork until well combined.


High-performance blenders for whole foods, snacks and smoothies, etc. Vitamix manufactures blenders for consumers as well as for the catering and hospitality industry.

Whole egg

(pronounced whole egg) is the egg mass obtained from the contents of broken chicken eggs. It is mainly used as an ingredient in industrially produced pasta. The term whole egg expresses that the complete egg content (and not only egg white or yolk) has been used for a food.


First baking of pastry bases without filling (see blind baking).



Shaping the dough.

X, Y, Z

Xanthan gum

Xanthan gum is a food additive used by the food industry as a gelling agent, thickener and filler. Xanthan gum is approved under the European authorisation number E 415 for food additives.


The yuzu is a hybridogenic plant species from the rue family. The yuzu has probably been cultivated for thousands of years in the middle Yangtze basin in China. It is a cross: Citrus × junos = Citrus ichangensis × Citrus reticulata var. austera.


Elongated thin strips (zests) of untreated or well-washed orange or lemon peel, cut or scraped with the zest ripper.


is a popular spice for Christmas baking, which is sold both in stick form and ground. Especially in combination with cloves, cumin and cardamom pods, it gives many Asian dishes (especially those from Indochina) their high aroma quality.

Candied lemon peel

s. Candied orange peel

Lemon peel

It is better to use lemon powder and freshly squeezed juice, as unsqueezed lemons are rather difficult to obtain. If fresh peel is used, only use the coloured outer skin, the white inner skin tastes bitter. It is best to wash the fruit with a brush under running water beforehand.

Sugar alternatives

If you want to live healthier, turn to sugar alternatives. Knowledge to go: There are many alternatives to replace sugar. (Birch sugar, coconut blossom sugar, date syrup, agave syrup, etc.) Which one is right for you depends on your personal taste and the intended use. Coconut blossom sugar, for example, is quite expensive, whereas stevia is not suitable for baking. Nevertheless, experts agree that you make a good choice with natural sugar alternatives such as honey or maple syrup: Both are natural products without chemicals that have valuable nutrients and can be metabolised well by our body - in a well-dosed form.


Can be completely or partially replaced by honey, brown, yellow or caramel sugar. Yellow sugar is sugar that looks yellow-brown due to adhering syrup and is particularly suitable for baking due to its typical taste. Hail sugar is a coarse-grained type of sugar for sprinkling and decorating baked goods. Lauter sugar is a concentrated, clear boiled sugar-water solution in a 1:1 ratio.

Pull off to the Rose

This mainly concerns egg masses (e.g. custard) which are slowly heated until they are thick enough to coat a wooden spoon. If you then blow on the spoon, it must form the shape of a rose.


For example, when preparing a sponge cake, if you mix the beaten egg whites too much with the other ingredients, the dough may collapse, i.e. it loses volume and falls apart. This should be avoided if possible.

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